Glossaries - Commons - The Netherlands and Belgium

This glossary wil provide you with explanations (and sometimes also translations) of Dutch words and expressions, used within the datasets on the commons and the related webtexts. Explanation/translation will only be given at the word or expression most commonly used. In case other words or expressions have the same meaning, a term in red italics will refer you to the explanation of the word/expression at the word/expression most commonly used.

 

To speed up your search, you may want to use the alphabet beneath to search for the first character. 

 

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Aanborger

Members of the common Gemene en Loweide of Assebroek and Oedelem in Belgium and members of the common Beverhoutsveld are referred to as aanborgers. (De Moor 2003, 388) 

 

Accessor

see: Gezworene

 

Akker

also known as: Bouwland. 

(Arable land)

Land that is, or can be cultivated, thus, which is farmed, on which crops are grown and reaped. (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 91) 

 

Armenjager

Person responsible for keeping poor people (beggars and vagabonds) out of the area belonging to a common or settlement. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, VII, 139)  

 

Baljuw

see: Schout

 

Barne plakken 

Peat used for fuel. 

 

Bedeljager

see: Armenjager

 

Belt

 A) Hill in a bog. B) see: Plaggen

 

Bode 

Someone who delivers messages - in a common likely to be the person responsible for communication in the common - for instance of the date and time of the meeting of the common. 

 

Boeren

also see: Buurschap; also known as: Buren , Bourmannen 

A) Inhabitants and members of a buurschap; B) Farmers. 

 

Boermarke

see: Buurmarke

 

Boerrechter

see: Buurrechter

 

Boerschap

see: Buurschap

 

Boerscholt

see: Buurrechter.  

 

Bonkaarde

Bonkaarde is the first half meter of peat which is not suitable for the making of turf. It can be mixed with dalgrond, the sandy subsoil of peat. In this manner a surface can be created which is fairly suitable for agriculture, as long as there is enough manure and proper drainage. 

 

Borgemeester

see: Burgemeester

 

Bos

(Forest, Woodland) 

Large area of land consisting of trees and undergrowth. Supplies timber for building, firewood for fuel, pasture for pigs, cattle and horses, leaf-litter for manure, fence-wood, hop-poles, game, nuts, wood for the upkeep of roads, bridges, embankments etc., and wood, charcoal, reeds, and rushes to trade. (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 91) 

 

Bosmaal

also known as: Maalman

Member of a maalschap

 

Bosmaalschap

see: Maalschap A

 

Bosmeester

also known as: Houtvester

Term used in the Veluwe area in Gelderland, official responsible for upkeep of the forest and cutting trees for wood. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, III, I, 659) 

 

Boswaarder

also known as: Houwer

Person responsible for surveying the forest, marking trees, cutting trees, and grazing sheep in the forest. Term used in Gelderland, often in a common known as a maalschap. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, III, I, 663) 

 

Bourmannen

see: Boeren A)

 

Bouwhout

also known as: Timmerhout

((Building) timber/ (Carpenting) timber) 

Sawn planks ready for to be used for buildings and as floorboards. 

 

Bouwland

see: Akker

 

Brandheren

Persons responsible for putting out fires. 

 

Brandhout

(Firewood) 

Wood used for fuel. 

 

Brink

(Village green) 

The brink was an area of grassland used to gather all the animals to be taken to the common for grazing as a herd. The village green was usually situated at the edge of the village. 

 

Broek

A broek is an area of land which remains wet due to rising groundwater (peat soil), or is located next to a river which floods the area on a regular basis such as an uiterwaard. Since the land is too wet for growing crops it is used for grazing during dry seasons. 

 

Broekmaalschap

see: Maalschap B)

 

Buren

see: Boeren A)

 

Burgemeester

also see: Buurmeester

A) (historically) Official of city councils responsible for daily affairs; B) Term sometimes used in a common to indicate a buurmeester

 

Buurgezworene

see: Buurmeester

 

Buurmarke

also see: Marke or Buurschap. Also known as: Boermarke.  

Sometimes a marke is referred to as a buurmarke or boermarke because it had ties with a buurschap/boerschap, usually the members lived in the buurschap and the mark was located near the buurschap

 

Buurmeester

also known as: Buurtmeester, Buurrechter/ Buurgezworene.  

The buurmeester was responsible for checking the waterworks of the boeren, to make sure the streams and ditches were well looked after. Sometimes he would also divide the taxes among the inhabitants and collect these taxes. Therefore, he would keep a cash register. Several persons were often chosen at the meeting of the marke/meent/buurschap to execute this task for one to several years. They would have to account for their actions over the period since the last meeting – usually a year – at the next meeting. (http://www.huiberts.info/begrippen/beroepen/buurmeester.html

 

Buurrechter

A) Highest official in a buurschap; B) Sometimes used to refer to buurmeester. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, III, I, 1939) 

 

Buurschap

also see: Marke. Also known as: Boerschap, Buurtschap.  

A buurschap is a small settlement which was formed in the Middle Ages, with its governing institution, which was also referred to as a buurschap. The institution created and upheld the bylaws of the village. For instance, the institution managed the upkeep of the roads, the church or chapel, education etc. A marke usually consisted of one or more buurschappen. There is some confusion over the terms marke(genootschap) and buurschap. Sometimes the buurschap would manage the common land as well, and sometimes the marke would manage the upkeep of roads, church, education etc. Therefore it sometimes happens that a marke is referred to as a buurschap and vice versa. 

 

Buurtmeester

see: Buurmeester

 

Buurtschap

see: Buurschap.  

 

Convocatielijst 

List made to convoke the members of the common for a meeting.  

 

Dalgrond  

also known as: Ondergronden

Dalgrond is the sandy subsoil which is located underneath a layer of peat (veen). It can be mixed with bonkaarde, the first half meter of peat which is not suitable for the making of turf. In this manner a surface can be created which is fairly suitable for agriculture, as long as there is enough manure and proper drainage. 

 

Dijkgraaf

also known as: Watergraaf

Head of the management of a dike, a polder, or a waterschap responsible for daily management. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, III, II, 2611) 

 

Dijkgraafschap

see: Waterschap

 

Dijkmeester

Official responsible for surveying upkeep of the dike. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, III, II, 2603) 

 

Drossaart

see: Schout

 

Drost

see: A) Schout, or B) Holtdrost.  

 

Eng 

see: Es

 

Enk

see: Es

 

Erfgenamen

see: Gewaarden

 

Erfgooiers 

also see: Meent (example). 

Erfgooiers are the hereditary members of the meent of ‘t Gooi. 

 

Erfmarkerichter

see: Markerechter

 

Es

also known as: Eng, Enk, Kouter

(Open field, Common arable) 

An es is an area of land used as common arable (akker). It was usually situated on high ground on sandy soil. 

 

Forster 

see: Vorster

 

Gecommitteerde 

see: Gezworene

 

Geërfden

see: Gewaarden

 

Gemeene grond

also see: Meent, Marke, Maalschap; also known as: Meent, Marke, Maalschap, Gemeynte

(Common land) 

An area of land with resources which are used by a multitude of proprietors. Gemeene grond is an area usually consisting of waste or pasture, which contains several resources, for instance grass for grazing, wood for fuel, sods for manure etc. These resources are used by several persons. Access is granted to specific groups (for instance a village community) or persons (for instance a group of owners). To make sure the resources are used wisely an institution is usually founded, known as a markegenootschap or meentgenootschap, which has a set of rules (regels), and a management to enforce these rules. These rules are usually written down in a markecedule or a (wille)keur. There are different types of gemeene grond in the Netherlands. Peter Hoppenbrouwers has made a distinction in terminology for common land usage dividing between marken and meenten (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 92-3). A meent is closely connected to local government and sometimes even set up by the local government. Access, full or limited, is usually granted to groups of people, for example entire villages, buurschappen, or towns, or specific groups in this community, for instance based on occupation (farmer) or inheritance. According to Hoppenbrouwers the organizational unit remained separate from the village communities (buurschappen). Only members of the common (meentgenoten) are granted access to the meent. The meentgenoten never fully coincided with the buren, inhabitants of the village. Marken on the other hand were set up separate from local government by the owners of the area, usually a group of farmers known as gewaarden. Access would be exclusive for them and for persons granted access personally, known as ongewaarden. This practical division is sometimes a bit difficult to maintain since the marken would regularly infringe on village bylaws at several points. Most authors agree that the institutions were set up in the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (Van Zanden, 1999, 128). Though some authors argue that they originated in the ninth and tenth century, by interpreting the Latin words marca, villa or curtis/curia as an indication of common land (Martens van Sevenhoven 1925, vol. 3.6, 4-6). 

 

Gemeene Weide

see: Meent A)

 

Gemeenschappelijk recht

(Common right) 

A) (in a narrow sense) Rights on common lands used in common by several proprietors for the bigger part of a year, or the entire year.  To protect the resource a limit on time of use could be placed (De Moor 2003, 390); B) (in a wider sense) rights to common use on private land after use by the owner, for instance the right to graze animals during fallow, to collect the remaining strands of grain after harvest, or to graze animals on the stoppels

 

Gemeynte

see: Meent A and B, term commonly used in Noord-Brabant. 

 

Gewaarde erven

also see: Waardelen, Gewaarden; also known as: Gewaarde hoeven.  

Gewaarde erven are farms that are inhabited by gewaarden, persons with user-shares of the marke, or to which the user-shares (waardelen) are bound. 

 

Gewaarde hoeven

see: Gewaarde erven

 

Gewaarden

also see: Waardelen; also known as: Erfgenamen, Geërfden.  

Gewaarden are the members of the marke with full user rights. They were probably the original owners of the land and the persons who had set up the institution, therefore they owned user-shares (waardelen). (Van Zanden 1999, 129)  

 

Gezworene

also see: Schutter; also known as: Accessor, Gecommitteerde.  

Member of the common elected to establish, in agreement with the village communities and the other administrators, rules (regels) and bylaws with fines for the use of the common. In some commons they would also fulfill a police role by daily supervision in the common to compel the users to obey the rules (regels). In other commons this task was fulfilled by schutters. There were usually several persons performing the function of gezworene simultaneously. According to Van Zanden (1999, 133), this was a unpopular position. Gradually this office was replaced by the markedienaar. (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 95

 

Grind

see: Kiezels

 

Groenland

see: Weiland

 

Hakhout 

also known as: Schaarhout, Slaghout, Kaphout

(Coppice, Copse)  

Low trees regularly cut for fire wood. 

 

Hammerke

see: Hamrik

 

Hamrik

also known as: Hemmerk, Hammerke

Institutions in the province of Groningen. It is debatable whether it can be seen as a common land institution. According to Joosting (Beekman 1920, vol. 6.1, 98) the word is sometimes used to indicate a marke, but it is first and foremost a term used to indicate a waterboard (waterschap).

 

Heemraad

Member of a waterschap responsible for the daily management of the dike and/or polder. 

 

Heemraadschap

see: Waterschap

 

Heide

(Heath) 

An area with small coarse shrubbery and some trees. Provides sods for roofing and manure, peat, wood, and dung for manure, used to pasture sheep and cattle, hunt for game, and to collect heather (for brooms), juniper, berries, and wool for trade. 

 

Heideplaggen

(Heath sods) 

Sods cut from heath, used as bedding for stables, this would mix with the manure by the animals, be covered with an other later of heath sods, mixed with manure etc. After winter the stable would be mucked out and the mixture of manure would be used to improve the quality of the arable lands. 

 

Hofmark

also see: Marke

Marke that originated from a seigneural court. (Martens van Sevenhoven 1924, vol. 6.3., 4-6)

 

Holtdrost

see: Houtgraaf

 

Holtrechter

see: Houtgraaf

 

Holtspraak

Mandatory meeting of the members of the common to take decisions, usually held at regular (yearly) intervals. 

 

Hoofdboek

Book that contains names of the members of the common Gemene and Loweiden. (De Moor 2003, 390

 

Hoogveen

(Peat moor) 

Moorland.

 

Hooiland

(Meadow) 

Grassland used to collect hay, to feed the animals during winters. After the gathering of the hay (which could be done several times) the area could be used to pasture animals. Often land that was very wet and therefore less suited for grazing would be used as hooiland

 

Houtgraaf

also known as: Veldgraaf, Holtrechter.  

Highest official in a maalschap, responsible for managing daily affairs and rights, presides over the meeting. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, VI, 1183

 

Houthaag 

Area of land with trees specifically used to cut down for wood. 

 

Houtvester

see: Bosmeester or Vorster

 

Houwer

see: A) Boswaarder; B) Turfslager.  

 

Kaphout 

see: Hakhout

 

Kate

see: Katerstede

 

Katerstede

also see: Ongewaarden; also known as: Kot,  Kate

A katerstede is a small shack-like farm. Ongewaarden would often rent a small plot of land and build a katerstede on it. 

 

Kerkmeester

A) (historically) Spokesperson of the church responsible for representing the interests of the church to the outside world; B) (current) Lay member of the church council. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, VII, I, 2346

 

Keur

Also known as: Markecedule, Willekeur.  

A keur is a list containing the rules (regels) and/or bylaws of the common, which are aimed at preservation of the common. To enforce these rules (regels) representatives of the common are chosen such as gezworenen and schutters. When breaking a bylaw a person would have to pay a sanction, either monetary, or in kind. The sanction is usually stated with the rule (regels). 

 

Keuters

see: Ongewaarden

 

Kiezels

also known as: Grind

Gravel, pebbles. 

 

Klauwengang 

The right to graze animals on the stoppels of surrounding commons. (De Moor 2003, 390

 

Klepperman

also known as: Nachtwaker

Person responsible for night watch. Would often alert people in case of a fire, and would function as the town crier. 

 

Koeweide

Also see: Weiland.

Grassland used for the pasture of cows. 

 

Kom/komgrond 

Komgrond is an area of land consisting of very heavy clay from a sea or a river. These lands are usually very wet and therefore only used for grazing. Komgrond is a specific type of broek which can usually be found in an uiterwaard

 

Kot

see: Katerstede

 

Kotters

see: Ongewaarden

 

Kouter

see: Es

 

Kreupelhout

(Thicket, Underwood, Brushwood, Brake)  

Low brushwood with intertwined trunks and branches. 

 

Kribmeester

also known as: Hoofdmeester.  

Person responsible for the upkeep of the groynes (kribben) of the river. 

 

Laagveen 

Peat bog.

 

Maalman 

see: Bosmaal

 

Maalschap

also see: Gemeene grond, Marke, Meent; also known as: Broekmaalschap, Bosmaalschap.  

A) Institution that managed a forest area used in common, sometimes referred to as a bosmaalschap; B) institution that managed a broek area (swampy marshland area), sometimes referred to as a broekmaalschap. The term is mainly found in Overijssel and Gelderland, especially in the Veluwe area. There is often some confusion in terminology. A maalschap is regularly indicated as a buurschap and/or a marke. A common could sometimes be closely connected to a maalschap. The maalschap would sometimes be a semi-independent part of a common. An uiterwaard or forest bordering on a common waste or common pasture area could belong to a part of the members of that common. The meetings could for instance be held consecutively. However, a maalschap could also be completely independent. Example (semi-independent): Marke Welsum (database commons ID 159) contained the Welsummerwaarden, which formed a semi-independent part of the marke with its own committee. However, many of the users of the marke Welsum were users of the Welsummerwaarden. The marke was divided before 1755, with the exception of the meent. However, the Welsummerwaarden were exempt from division and were sold in 1825. (Engelen van der Veen 1924, vol 6.2, 18-9

 

Malenboek

Book containing the rules (regels) and regulations of a maalschap

 

Marke

also see: Gemeene grond, Meent, Buurschap

(Mark, Common land)  

A) A name used to indicate common land in the Eastern Netherlands. The term marke is used to indicate common land. The term is mainly used in the provinces Drenthe, Overijssel, Eastern Gelderland, and parts of Groningen. However, all common land was called a marke in the nineteenth century to indicate common land use; B) A specific type of common land. A marke is a specific type of gemeene grond, an area of land which is not enclosed and its resources are used by multiple persons.The term used to indicate a specific type of common land which prevailed in Overijssel and Gelderland managed by a markegenootschap (technically speaking the term marke refers to the area, whilst the term markegenootschap refers to the management. Both terms are often used to indicate the area as well as the management since these two overlapped and they are therefore interchangeable when writing). Peter Hoppenbrouwers (2002, 92-3) has made a distinction between marken and meenten based on the relation to local government. Marken were set up separately from local government by the owners of the area, usually a group of farmers known as gewaarden. Access would be exclusive for them and for persons granted access personally, known as ongewaarden. This practical division is sometimes a bit difficult to maintain since the marken would regularly infringe on village bylaws at several points.* Most authors agree that the institutions were set up in the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (Van Zanden 1999, 128).Though some authors argue that they originated in the ninth and tenth century, by interpreting the Latin words marca, villa or curtis/curia as an indication of common land (Martens van Sevenhoven 1925, 4-6). 

*) There is some confusion over the terms marke(genootschap) and buurschap, a small village settlement with its institution that would manage matters of the buurschap. Sometimes the buurschap would manage the common land as well, and sometimes the marke would manage the upkeep of roads, church, education etc. Therefore it sometimes happens that a marke is referred to as a buurschap and vice versa. Example: Marke Geesteren, Mander and Vasse, (database commons ID 319) contained three buurschappen, village communities, Geesteren, Mander and Vasse in the province of Overijssel. The first markecedule was drafted in 1498. Full access was granted to the gewaarden (depending on the number of waardelen a person possessed) and limited access was granted to several ongewaarden. It is likely that these three buurschappen used to form one marke, and over time the gewaarden of the village communities gained a certain degree of independence, after which some lands were used by one community, whilst other lands were shared between the three. In spite of this partial independence, the markevergadering was held simultaneously and the marke had one governing body. The markegenootschap divided the common land between the three areas in 1847 at which point they became separate marks. Geesteren then contained 2676 ha and Vasse contained 764 ha (1871), surface of Mander is unknown. Final division: Geesteren: 1851, Mander, 1857 and Vasse 1871. (Beekman and Engelen van der Veen 1924, vol. 6.2, 122-4

 

Markeboek

also see: Marke

A markeboek is one of the most important sources for studying marken. It usually contains a keur, with the bylaws of the markegenootschap, waartallijsten, minutes of markevergaderingen, meetings, with the resolutions made at those meetings, and financial administration of the markegenootschap

 

Markecedule

see: Keur

 

Markedienaar

Servant of the marke who received a separate but modest salary to perform police duties, to make sure the members would obey the rules (regels). This task used to be fulfilled by a gezworene or a schutter

 

Markegenootschap

also see: Marke

A markegenootschap is the institution that manages a marke to preserve it. The markegenootschap makes and executes the rules (regels) written down in the markecedule, the members gather at regular intervals at the markevergadering. Technically speaking the term marke refers to the area, whilst the term markegenootschap refers to the management. Both terms are often used to indicate the area as well as the management since these two overlapped and they are therefore interchangeable when writing. 

 

Markegenoten

also see: Marke.  

Members of the marke, those that have access to the common. 

 

Markerechter (markerichter)

also see: Markevergadering

The markerechter was the chair of the meeting of the marke (markevergadering). He had a dominant position in the marke. Usually the office was tied to a specific farm, and the position was often fulfilled by a nobleman with substantial landholdings in the area. Sometimes a nobleman was the markerechter of several marks. The position of markerechter was often (around 75 per cent of all cases) hereditary. This person would sometimes be referred to as the erfmarkerechter. However, sometimes the position could be elected or appointed by the other members for a period varying from one year to life, depending on the marke

 

Markeschrijver

see: Scriba. 

 

Markevergadering 

Mandatory meeting of the members of the common to take decisions, usually held at regular (yearly) intervals. 

 

Meent

also see: Marke, Gemeene Grond; also known as: Gemeene Weide, Gemeene Grond, Gemeynte, Schaarweiden A) 

(Common, Common land, Common pasture 

The word meent is used for A) An area used for common pasture, it is an area of grassland used for grazing by a multiplicity of proprietors; B) The name used to indicate a common land with its management. The term was commonly used in Holland, Brabant, and Limburg; C) A specific type of common land with its specific type of management, a specific type of gemeene grond, an area of land which is not enclosed and its resources are used by multiple persons. Peter Hoppenbrouwers (2002, 92-3) has made a distinction in terminology for common land usage dividing between marken and meenten. In this division a meent is a common with an organization known as meentgenootschap that was ‘closely linked to general local government’ (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 92) as opposed to the marken. Technically speaking the term meent refers to the area, whilst the term meentgenootschap refers to the management. Both terms are often used to indicate the area as well as the management since these two overlapped and they are therefore interchangeable when writing. A meent is sometimes even set up by the local government. Access, full or limited, is usually granted to groups of people, for example entire villages (buurschappen)or towns, or specific groups in this community, for instance based on occupation (farmer) or inheritance. According to Hoppenbrouwers the organizational unit remained separate from the village communities (buurtschappen). Only members of the common (meentgenoten) are granted access to the meent. The meentgenoten never fully coincided with the buren, inhabitants of the village.  Example: A well-known example of a meent is found in the Dutch province of Noord-Holland in het Gooi (database commons ID 479). However, it is know under the term marke. It existed from 1404 until 1972. All inhabitants of the town Naarden, and surrounding villages Laren, Blaricum, Huizen, and Hilversum had a limited access to the common. There were multiple common pastures (meenten) in this area. However they were under one general management, and all persons that had access to the commons were allowed to pick which particular common pasture they wanted to access. This access was granted in exchange for a fee in an agreement from 1404 with Duke Albert I of Bavaria (Albrecht van Beyeren, count of Holland). Only inhabitants that owned a house, and cultivated farmland were granted full access. Furthermore, access was only granted to those that had been born in the area. This practice was changed in the late seventeenth century, after which access was only granted on the basis of inheritance. The hereditary proprietors of the meent in Het Gooi are known as Erfgooiers, or meentgenoten. The management of the meent was executed by a meentevergadering, a meeting by the village councils. These councils turned into a delegation of Erfgooiers in the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century the meeting was conducted at the Naarden Town Hall. The meeting consisted of three mayors (burgemeesters) of the town of Naarden, and buurmeesters and delegates (gemachtigden) of Laren, Hilversum, Huizen, and Blaricum. The clerk of Naarden was present to take notes of the meeting. The heath lands (heide) were sold in 1933 and the common pastures (meenten) were sold in 1972. (Le Cosquino de Bussy 1925, vol. 6.4, 121-8; Kok 1780-1799, vol. 23, p 6-7

 

Meentgenootschap

also see: Meent.  

A meentgenootschap is the institution that manages a meent to preserve it. The meentgenootschap makes and executes the rules (regels) written down in the keur, the members gather at regular intervals at the meentvergadering. Technically speaking the term meent refers to the area, whilst the term meentgenootschap refers to the management. Both terms are often used to indicate the area as well as the management since these two overlapped and they are therefore interchangeable when writing. 

 

Meentgenoten

also see: Meent.  

Members of the meent, those that have access to the common. 

 

Meentgraaf

also known as: Weigraaf.  

Person, highest official in a meent, responsible for daily affairs and presiding over the meeting. 

 

Meentvergadering 

Mandatory meeting of the members of the common to take decisions, usually held at regular (yearly) intervals. 

 

Meier

see: A) Pachter, B) Schout (term used to indicate a schout in Noord-Brabant).  

 

Nachtwaker 

see: Klepperman.  

 

Oever 

(Bank) 

The edge of a river, canal, or lake, often wet and therefore used for grazing. 

 

Ondergronden

see: Dalgrond

 

Ongewaarden

also known as: Kotters, Keuters.  

Persons who were not part of the common at its foundation and therefore did not own waardelen. They were only granted limited user rights. These relative newcomers would usually have smaller holdings than the gewaarden. Occasionally, a distinction was made between different groups of ongewaarden, for instance persons who had been part of the marke longer would be allowed to keep more animals on the common than new settlers (for example see waardelen). (Van Zanden 1999, 129

 

Opbrander 

Person who would brand the animals during the schouw

 

Opziener

see also: Schutter.

Members of the common appointed for the daily supervision of the common. Their main task was the locking up ('schutten' in Middle Dutch) of animals belonging to people who did not have use rights, or of people who had put more animals on the common than their use rights allowed them, this task was especially important during the schouw. In Noord-Brabant they also had the task of keeping out vagabonds and beggars. There were usually several persons performing the function of schutter simultaneously. (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 95

 

Overwintering

(Levancy and Couchancy)  

This provided that commoners could graze as many beasts as they were able to sustain off their own resources over the winter, when grass-growth was too meagre for common grazing. (De Moor, Shaw-Taylor, and Warde 2001, 261)  

 

Pachter 

also known as: Meijer

(Tenant)  

Person that rents a plot of land for farming. 

 

Plaggen

also known as: Zodden, Belt B)

(Sods) 

Sods are created by cutting turfs of peat and then used as stable bedding for cattle. The dung would than be mixed with the sods and used as manure on the arable fields. 

 

Regels 

(Rules) 

Normative agreements that specify which persons are allowed or obliged to take a specific action or influence a specific decision about the common. (De Moor 2003, 391

 

Resolutie

also see: Markevergadering

(Resolution)  

Decisions taken at the markevergadering, often written down in the markeboek

 

Rotmeester 

A) Head of a civil watch organization, his job was to keep watch during difficult times; B) Leader of the dijkleger, a group of persons responsible for upkeep of the dike and waterworks; C) Buurmeester. (Woordenboek der Nederlandse taal 1882, XIII, 1439

 

Schaapsweide 

Grassland used for the grazing of sheep. 

 

Schaarbrief

see: Keur

 

Schaarhout

see: Hakhout

 

Schaarweide

see: Meent A)

 

Scharen 

Scharen are the user-shares belonging to the members of a common, usually a meent. The amount of shares a person had in his possession, the more use he or she would be allowed to make of the common. 

 

Schater

see: Schutter

 

Scheuter

see: Schutter

 

Schoter

see: Schutter

 

Schout

also known as: Landdrost, Drossaart, Boerrechter.  

A) Head of local town, village or buurschap government in a schoutambt; B) Representative of the lord (heer) in a heerlijkheid. His tasks were to manage the daily proceedings of the village government together with the aldermen (schepenen), other village or town officials, and a secretary, to be the prosecutor in criminal matters. He was also in charge of the police; C) Dijkgraaf

 

Schouw 

On regular intervals the markerichter, assisted by the schutters would check all the fences of the common and count all the animals kept on the common, those that had kept more animals on the common than they were allowed would be fined. 

 

Schouwer

see: Schutter

 

Schutter

also see: Gezworene; also known as: Scheuter, Schoter, Schater, Schouwer

Official of the common, responsible for shutting in animals who are not being kept in accordance with the established rules. Also responsible for inspection and maintenance of the fences of the common, together with the markenrechter

 

Scriba

also known as: Markeschrijver

(Scribe, Writer)  

Person that writes the documents such as the markeboek, and keur for the common, often a local cleric in earlier times. 

 

Slaghout

see: Hakhout

 

Sprokkelhout

(Dead wood)  

Dead branches that have fallen from a tree that have been gathered. 

 

Stoppelgang 

The right to graze animals on the stoppels. (De Moor 2003, 390

 

Stoppels

(Stalks)  

Stalks of the plant that are not cut during harvest. 

 

Stoppelweide 

Field containing stalks of plants after harvesting used for grazing animals. 

 

Struikhout

see: Kreupelhout

 

Stuifzand

see: Zandverstuiving.  

 

Timmerhout

see: Bouwhout

 

Turf 

Turf is dried peat (veen), used as fuel. 

 

Turfslager 

Person responsible for control of cutting of sods for fuel (turf). 

 

Twijgen

(Twigs/Sprigs)  

Young bendable branches suited as binding material and to weave baskets etc. 

 

Twijgwaard 

Land outside the dike planted with trees, mainly willows that provide twigs.  

 

Uiterwaard 

also known as: Uiterweerd.  

An uiterwaard is an outdike basin area, the area of land in the summer dike and the winter dike of a river or stream used to give the river space to flood. It is usually under water during winters, but may be used for grazing during dry seasons. 

 

Varkensherder  

Herder of pigs. 

 

Veen

(Peat, Bog)  

Veen is wet spongy soil which contains little oxygen. It is made up out of humified plants. It may be used to make bricks, to supply grass-sods (plaggen) for manure, food in the form of fish and game. 

 

Veldgraaf

see: Houtgraaf

 

Verhoofding 

The procedure to become member (aanborger) of the common Gemene and Loweiden, including the insertion of the name of the new aanborger in the hoofdboek (book containing names of the members). (De Moor 2003, 392

 

Voorpootrecht 

‘The right granted to peasants to plant trees and shrubs on common waste lands in front of their farms so that they would have their own supply of timber.’ (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 96

 

Vorstenslater

see: Vorster

 

Vorster

also known as: Vorstenslater, Forster.  

Term used for policing official in wooded area. The tasks were similar to the tasks of schutters. They were to prevent infringement on common byelaws, prevent trespassers, such as vagabonds and beggars from staying on the common, had to supply security against criminals and highwaymen, act as game keepers and sounding the fire alarm. (Hoppenbrouwers 2002, 96

 

Vroente

also known as: Vrunte.  

Term used in the west of the province Noord-Brabant, waste lands that had not been given to the local community for common use by the landlords, but on which neighboring peasants could exercise customary use rights. In exchange they had to pay the landlord. However, the peasants were not protected by any form of formal grant. 

 

Vrunte

see: Vroente

 

Vuurheren

see: Brandheren.  

 

Waard 

see: Uiterwaard

 

Waardelen

see also: Gewaarden, Ongewaarden.  

Waardelen are the user-shares that belong to the original members of the marke and their offspring; waardelen may be tied to a person or to specific farms known as gewaarde erven. The ownership of one share would grant a person full access right to the marke. However, farms could be split and shares could be sold, resulting in half shares, quarter shares and so on, or farms could be joined gaining 2 full shares for instance. This was consequential for the amount of resources the members were allowed to extract from the common. Not all person who had access to the common had a waardeel, they were known as ongewaarden, they only had limited user rights. Example: in 1561 the gewaarden of the marke Ruinen with one waardeel (database commons ID 92) were allowed to keep 35 beasts and six horses on the marke, 4 groups of ongewaarden were acknowledged and they were allowed to pasture respectively 15 beasts and 3 horses, 10 beasts and 4 horses, 10 beasts and 2 horses, and 3 beasts (Van Zanden 1999, 129). For an other example see waartallijst

 

Waardsman 

Member of the government of a polder or a dike, responsible for upkeep of the dike. 

 

Waarsman

see: Waardsman

 

Waartallijst 

List of members of the marke (gewaarden), with their amount of  shares in the marke (waardelen), usually found in a markeboek

 

Wateren 

Collective term for rivers, lakes, streams, ditches etc. 

 

Watergraaf

see: Dijkgraaf

 

Waterschap 

Institution responsible for the upkeep of dikes and polders. 

 

Weerd

see: Uiterwaard

 

Weide

see: Weiland

 

Weigraaf

see: Meentgraaf

 

Weiland

also known as: Weide or Groenland

(Grassland, Pasture)  

A weiland is an area of grassland used for grazing of cattle. 

 

Wildert 

Term used in Noord-Brabant to indicate common waste. 

 

Wildgraaf 

Highest official of an uncultivated area. Term mainly used in Germany, but sometimes in Dutch commons as well. 

 

Willekeur

see: Keur.  

 

Zand 

(Sand)  

Sand is the fine debris of rocks, consisting of small, loose grains. As a resource it could have been used to improve soil by mixing it with manure, to make bricks, or to be traded. 

 

Zandgraaf 

Office created in the mid-seventeenth century to fight sand drifts (zandverstuivingen). 

 

Zandverstuiving

also known as: Stuifzand

(Sand drift)  

Sand drifts come into existence when the vegetation on sandy soil disappears (usually due to overgrazing and cutting of sods). With heavy wind these sands are moved (drift) this may enlarge the sand drift further. 

 

Zodden

see: Plaggen.